Η Toyota παρουσίασε δύο νέους πετρελαιοκινητήρες που διαθέτουν την ολοκαίνουρια, Thermo Swing Wall Insulation Technology της. Μία τεχνολογία που υπόσχεται αύξηση της απόδοσης κατά 15% και της μέγιστης ροπής, κατά 25%. Οι κινητήρες, διαθέτουν επίσης το νέο Selective Catalytic Reduction σύστημα που σύμφωνα με την εταιρία, μειώνει έως και κατά 99% τις εκπομπές μονοξειδίου του αζώτου (NOx).
Ο πρώτος turbodiesel άμεσου ψεκασμού που παρουσίασε η Toyota, έχει χωρητικότητα 2.8 λίτρων και κωδικό 1GD-FTV. Η θερμική του απόδοση, φτάνει το 44% με την ιπποδύναμη να είναι στα 177 άλογα και την ροπή, στα 450 Nm από τις 1.600 έως τις 2.400 σ.α.λ. Ο δεύτερος κινητήρας που παρουσιάστηκε ταυτόχρονα, έχει χωρητικότητα 2.4 λίτρων –κωδικός 2GD-FTV- και αποδίδει 150 άλογα και 400 Nm ροπής από τις 1.600 έως τις 3.400 σ.α.λ.
Η Toyota λέει ότι η TSWIT και η χρήση ενισχυμένου με διοξείδιο του πυριτίου ανοδιωμένου αλουμινίου (SiRPA) στα πιστόνια έχει μειώσει τις απώλειες ψύξης κατά 30%. Τέλος, να αναφέρουμε ότι οι κινητήρες είναι εφοδιασμένοι και με υψηλής απόδοσης turbo μεταβλητής γεωμετρίας που παράγεται από την ίδια την Toyota και είναι κατά 30% μικρότερο από αντίστοιχα.
TOYOTA ENGINEERS CLEANER AND MORE EFFICIENT TURBODIESEL ENGINES
- New Toyota engines with next-generation thermal insulation diesel combustion
- World-first* use of Thermo Swing Wall Insulation Technology in new 2.8-litre D-4D engine, newly featured in Land Cruiser
- Exceptional 44 per cent maximum thermal efficiency*
- 15 per cent improvement in fuel efficiency, 25 per cent increase in torque
- Removal of up to 99 per cent of NOx emissions
- Production total 700,000 new GD diesel units a year; engine to be offered in around 90 world markets by the end of 2016
Toyota’s new 2.8-litre D-4D turbodiesel engine, making its UK debut in Land Cruiser this summer, represents the first fruits of advanced new design and technology to achieve much higher fuel efficiency, lower emissions and quieter operation.
The engine (1GD-FTV) is the first in the world to benefit from Thermo Swing Wall Insulation Technology, making it one of the most thermally efficient on the market; its thermal efficiency rating is 44 per cent.
Although it is smaller than the 3.0-litre engine it is replacing, it offers 25 per cent more torque. Usefully, there is 11 per cent more torque available at low revs, and customers will appreciate a 15 per cent improvement in fuel economy.
As well as appearing in Land Cruiser, the engine is powering new Far Eastern market versions of Hilux. The same engine group will also feature a new 2.4-litre direct injection turbodiesel (2GD-FTV).
Engine technical specifications
|Bore x stroke (mm)||92.0 x 103.6||92.0 x 90.0|
|Max. power (bhp/kW @ rpm)||174/130 @ 3,400||148/110 @ 1,200|
|Max. torque (Nm @ rpm)||450 @ 1,600 – 2,400||330 @ 1,600 – 2,000|
|Low-speed torque (Nm @ rpm)||370Nm @ 1,200||330 Nm @ 1,200|
Specifications may vary according to national market.
New engine features
In testing, the new engines have proven their high thermal efficiency, quiet operation and powerful performance in worldwide locations, including extremely cold environments, where temperatures can fall to -40°C, and at high altitudes above 4,500 metres.
Toyota has also been able to make the engine catalyst 30 per cent smaller and has reduced the number of exhaust layouts from 18 to just three, simplifying the engines’ deployment worldwide and reducing the environmental burden.
Next generation advanced thermal insulation diesel combustion
Key to the performance of the new engines is the world-first application of Thermo Swing Wall Insulation Technology, together with a SiRPA (a silica-reinforced porous, anodised aluminium coating) on the pistons – reducing the cooling loss during combustion by about 30 per cent. SiRPA’s high insulation and dissipation qualities make it easy to heat and to cool.
The air intake port has been shaped to allow a significant increase in the amount of airflow into the cylinders; the piston combustion chamber shape has been revised; and the common rail fuel injection system allows for more advanced pressure control and injection optimisation. Air consumption is maximised, which enables high thermal efficiency and low emissions to be achieved.
Precise pilot injection, matching the state of the ambient air, takes place ahead of the main injection to shorten ignition delay. This means stable combustion is achieved, even in harsh environments, together with quiet running and high thermal efficiency.
Compact, high-efficiency variable geometry turbocharger
The GD engines use a new turbocharger that is 30 per cent smaller than its predecessor. Produced in-house by Toyota, it has a new turbine that improves efficiency and a new impeller that gives instantaneous throttle response and allows maximum torque to be obtained over wide engine rev range.
Toyota-first urea selective catalyst reduction system
Using Toyota’s proprietary, compact, high-dispersion urea selective catalyst reduction system eliminates up to 99 per cent of NOx emissions, one of the principal causes of air pollution. This helps the engine conform to Euro 6 and other international emissions standards.
Production and markets
The current KD family of engines will be phased out gradually and replaced with the new GD units, By 2016, production will reach about 700,000 units a year, available in around 90 world markets. Toyota aims to increase this number to at least 150 by 2020.
Toyota will continue to position diesel engines as a key component in its engine line-up, true to the philosophy of providing the right vehicles for the right places, at the right time. The entire Toyota group, including Toyota Industries Corporation, will combine its energies to develop cleaner and more competitive diesel engines for a wide range of vehicle types, taking into account the varying needs of people around the world.
* Toyota data and in-house measurements
- New Euro 6 174bhp 2.8-litre D-4D engine
- New six-speed automatic transmission, replacing previous five-speed unit
- Improved engine torque delivery plus gains of around nine per cent in fuel economy and reduced CO2 emissions
- Reintroduction of five-door/seven-seat Land Cruiser Active models
- Revised equipment specifications
- Available to order from 1 July, deliveries from 1 August
- Prices from £35,895 (three-door) and £37,695 (five-door)
Toyota’s mighty Land Cruiser gains a new engine this summer, ensuring the go-anywhere SUV remains one of the finest all-round propositions on the market.
At the same time, equipment specifications have been upgraded and extra models have been added to the line-up.
New 2.8 D-4D engine
The three and five-door Land Cruiser both adopt the new 2.8-litre D-4D unit, which replaces the current 3.0-litre engine. The focus is on improved driveability with better torque delivery, plus lower fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions.
The 2,755cc, 16-valve DOHC engine produces a maximum 174bhp (130kW). Matched with the current six-speed manual transmission, it develops peak torque of 420Nm between 1,400 and 2,400rpm. A new six-speed automatic transmission (replacing the previous five-speed) allows even more pulling power to be delivered, with an extra 30Nm on tap between 1.600 and 2.400rpm.
The new automatic benefits from control systems that help Land Cruiser achieve around a nine per cent improvement in fuel economy and CO2 emissions. Provisional figures show combined cycle performance at 39.2mpg and 194g/km for the five-door model.
Higher equipment specifications
The introduction of a new powertrain is accompanied by attractive new standard equipment features.
The entry-level Active grade models now come equipped with DAB digital radio for better quality radio reception. The options list has been extended to include Toyota Touch 2 with Go, which adds intuitive and comprehensive navigation functions to the vehicle’s high-resolution, touchscreen-controlled multimedia system (£750).
Customers can also specify leather seats for the vehicle. On three-door models this also includes heated front seats and leather door trims (£1,395); on the five-door Active the package includes power adjustment for the front seats and triple-zone automatic air conditioning (£2,795).
The Icon model also adopts DAB and the more sophisticated Toyota Touch 2 with Go Plus, adding voice command recognition, 3D city mapping and a text-to-speech function. At the top of the range, Land Cruiser Invincible gains the same new features, plus all the elements included in the new optional Safety Pack (details below).
Land Cruiser’s new Safety Pack option (for Active and Icon models, £2,635) equips the SUV with a wealth of features to help avoid accidents and support safer driving on and off road. They include Adaptive Cruise Control and Pre-Crash Safety system; Lane Change Assist; Rear Cross Traffic Alert; Blind Spot Monitor; and a Multi-Terrain Monitor, which gives a 360-degree view of the vehicle’s immediate surroundings.
A Protection Pack (£595) is offered for all five-door models, adding side mouldings, a rear bumper protection plate and a boot liner.
Extended model range
The introduction of the new engine also heralds an increase in the Land Cruiser model range with the re-introduction of the Active grade five-door/seven-seat version, available, with either manual or automatic transmission. The three-door/five-seat Land Cruiser Active remains in place, exclusive with manual shift.
Performance data (provisional)
|Max. power (bhp/kW)||174/130||174/130|
|Max. torque (Nm @ rpm)||420 @ 1,400 – 2,400||450 @ 1,600 – 2,400|
|Max. speed (mph)||109||109|
|Acceleration 0 – 62mph (sec)||12.1||12.7|
|Combined cycle fuel consumption (mpg)||38.2||37.7||n/a||39.2|
|Combined cycle CO2 emissions (g/km)||193||197||n/a||194|
Prices and availability
The revised Land Cruiser range will be available to order from 1 July with customer deliveries from 1 August. All models are covered by Toyota’s five-year/100,000-mile new vehicle warranty.
|Grade||BODY STYLE||ENGINE & TRANSMISSION||OTR PRICE|
|Active||Three-door/five-seat||2.8 D-4D 6MT||£35,895|
|Active||Five-door/seven-seat||2.8 D-4D 6MT||£37,695|
|Active||Five-door/seven-seat||2.8 D-4D 6AT||£39,295|
|Icon||Five-door/seven-seat||2.8 D-4D 6AT||£48,395|
|Invincible||Five-door/seven-seat||2.8 D-4D 6AT||£54,895|