Η Land Rover τρία demo οχήματα που μας παρέχουν μία κλεφτή ματιά για το μέλλον των μηδενικών εκπομπών της εταιρίας. Τα οχήματα είναι υπό εξέλιξη τα τελευταία 2 χρόνια και ενώ η Land Rover επιμένει ότι δεν είναι τίποτε περισσότερο από “πρωτότυπα δοκιμών”, δεν μπορούμε να μην σκεφτόμαστε ότι κάτι δείχνουν για το όχι και τόσο μακρινό μέλλον.
Το πρώτο πρωτότυπο, ονομάζεται Concept e MHEV και είναι ένα υβριδικό ποτ βασίζεται στο Range Rover Evoque. Κινείται από έναν πρωτότυπο πετρελαιοκινητήρα 89 ίππων και ένα πακέτο μπαταριών ιόντων λιθίου 48 V. Το δεύτερο, βασίζεται στο Range Rover Sport, λέγεται Concept e PHEV και όπως φανερώνει το όνομα του, είναι plug-in υβριδικό. Χρησιμοποιεί ένα παρόμοιο setup με το πρώτο, αλλά τον πετρελαιοκινητήρα αντικαθιστά ένας βενζινοκινητήρας 296 ίππων και το battery pack είναι 320 V και βρίσκεται στον χώρο αποσκευών.
Χρησιμοποιεί δε ένα 8-τάχυτο, αυτόματο κιβώτιο και σύστημα τετρακίνησης, Το τρίτο και τελευταίο πρωτότυπο, βασίζεται στην ολοκαίνουρια, αλουμινένια πλατφόρμα της Jaguar-Land Rover. Μία μπαταρία ιόντων λιθίου, 70 kWh παρέχει ενέργεια για έναν ηλεκτροκινητήρα 85 kW που βρίσκεται στον εμπρός άξονα και έναν 145 kW στον πίσω.
Τέλος, η Land Rover παρουσίασε μία τεχνολογία που η ίδια ονομάζει “Warm Air Blanket”. Με αυτήν, σκοπεύει να μειώσει την ενέργεια που χρησιμοποιεί ένα αυτοκίνητο, βελτιώνοντας μεταξύ άλλων, τα συστήματα θέρμανσης και εξαερισμού. Η εταιρία εξετάζει τη χρήση ειδικού γυαλιού που θα μπλοκάρει τις ακτίνες του ήλιου ώστε να απαιτείται λιγότερη ενέργεια για την ψύξη της καμπίνας. Η JLR λέει πως ίσως να μην χρειάζεται καν ενέργεια για να θερμάνει την καμπίνα, αφού εξετάζει μία τεχνολογία που θα πετυχαίνει το ίδιο αποτέλεσμα με την χρήση ειδικών panels στα σκίαστρα, το πάνω μέρος των θυρών και το τούνελ της μετάδοσης.
JAGUAR LAND ROVER REVEALS PIONEERING LOW AND ZERO EMISSIONS POWERTRAIN RESEARCH
- Jaguar Land Rover reveals unique electric Drive Module (eDM) technology that could be used to create future low and zero-emissions vehicles
- Three ‘Concept_e’ research demonstrators showcase potential future Battery Electric Vehicle, Plug-In Hybrid and Mild Hybrid technologies
Whitley, UK: Jaguar Land Rover has revealed some of the new and innovative low and zero emission powertrain technologies it is researching at this year’s CENEX Low Carbon Vehicle event.
Three Concept_e research demonstrators showcase this far-reaching future research, which includes a new unique high performance, modular electric drive module (eDM) developed in-house by Jaguar Land Rover. These are capable of producing twice the power and torque of any electric motor-generator in production today. These can be inserted between any engine and transmission to create MHEV or PHEV, or used alone for a BEV.
The Concept_e technologies are the output of an advanced powertrain research programme for state-of-the-art, next-generation hybrid and battery-electric powertrain technologies which began in 2013.
Led by Jaguar Land Rover, this two year £16.3m research project is part-funded by the UK’s innovation agency, Innovate UK1 and involves 12 UK technology partners2. It has brought together leading engineers and technologists from academia, the supply chain and industry to create a number of unique and innovative solutions.
Dr Wolfgang Epple, Director of Research and Technology, Jaguar Land Rover, said: “This is a long-term Jaguar Land Rover research project exploring all aspects of future hybrid and battery electric vehicle technology. The three Concept_e vehicles will allow us to test and develop exciting new potential technologies that could form part of our low and zero emissions vision beyond 2020.
“The project is also helping to develop the UK’s skills and capabilities in alternative powertrains. We are serious about helping the UK become a world-wide leader in powertrain technologies. Collaborative research programmes like this allow us to multiply the effect of our own R&D investment and nurture the UK’s technology supply chain. This approach is helping to develop the skills and technologies that will make the UK even more competitive in the future.”
Dr Ruth McKernan, Chief Executive at Innovate UK said: “The world-leading results of this collaborative R&D project not only justify our investment in the project, but promise significant economic benefits for the UK automotive industry and its supply chains. Our £230m investment in the sector over the past 8 years has helped the industry complete a remarkable turnaround, with the UK now seen as the pre-eminent global hub for automotive innovation.”
The three Concept_e research demonstrators include:
- Concept_e MHEV. The Mild Hybrid is based on a Range Rover Evoque donor vehicle and features a prototype diesel engine (90 PS) and a 48V electrical system. It incorporates a 15 kW crank integrated motor with disconnect clutch within a hybrid module sandwiched between the engine and 9 speed transmission. The motor-generator is powered by an advanced 48-volt electrical system and 48-volt lithium ion battery pack.
- Concept_e PHEV. The Plug-In Hybrid employs a similar architecture to the MHEV but with a prototype petrol engine (300 PS) and 8 speed transmission longitudinally mounted within a Range Rover Sport donor vehicle. The electric motor is capable of up to 150 kW and also takes up the function of the starter motor. The motor draws electrical energy from a 320-volt lithium ion battery packaged in the boot. The hybrid powerplant drives through the conventional automatic gearbox normally fitted to the Range Rover Sport and the full time four-wheel drive system is retained.
- Concept_e BEV is a bespoke research demonstrator based on Jaguar Land Rover’s aluminium vehicle architecture. The underbody has been modified to mount the 70 kWh HV lithium ion traction battery and electric axle drive (EAD) units. The front drive unit features a single speed transmission coupled with an 85 kW electric motor. The rear drive unit features a twin speed transmission coupled with a 145 kW electric motor.
Dr Epple added: “Environmental Innovation is at the heart of our business. We have a wide-ranging low emissions technology strategy, which has created innovations like our Ingenium engine family and lighter vehicles. Technologies like these have already helped us reduce our fleet CO2 average by 25 per cent in recent years.
“Our future vision is to continue to reduce emissions and improve fuel efficiency while still delivering the luxury, performance, refinement and comfort our customers expect. Whether it’s optimising the internal combustion engine, advanced hybrid and battery-electric propulsion systems, the introduction of new, lightweight materials or the improvement of energy conservation through more efficient heating and ventilation technologies, we are leaving no stone unturned to ensure Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles emit significantly less emissions in the future.”
- Jaguar Land Rover demonstrate ‘Warm Air Blanket’ research. This new technology could dramatically reduce the energy consumed when heating a vehicle
- Innovations to reduce vehicle weight include concept seats 30 per cent lighter than they are today and components made from carbon fibre mixed with flax
- Research to replace wiring looms and electrical components with innovative wafer-thin printed electronic circuits, currently used in curved televisions
Whitley, UK: Jaguar Land Rover has showcased some of the new and innovative low and zero emission technologies it is researching at this year’s CENEX Low Carbon Vehicle event.
As well as showing Battery Electric Vehicle, Plug-In Hybrid and Mild Hybrid technologies, Jaguar Land Rover’s research engineers have revealed how they are researching more efficient heating and ventilation systems and new solutions to reduce vehicle weight to improve emissions and fuel economy.
Because Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems (HVAC) consume substantial amounts of energy and therefore fuel, or electrical energy stored in the battery of a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV), Jaguar Land Rover is working on research projects that could dramatically reduce the energy consumed when heating and cooling a vehicle.
Dr Wolfgang Epple, Director of Research and Technology, Jaguar Land Rover, said: “Today’s HVAC systems can draw 8-10kW from an electric vehicle battery, enough to reduce the range by up to 40 per cent, while air conditioning can reduce the range of an internal combustion engine by up to 20 per cent.
“So to improve the fuel economy and emissions of internal combustion engines and to enhance the range of a future BEV, we have been rethinking the thermal management of a vehicle cabin. We are developing new methods of heating and cooling the cabin, to achieve substantial reductions in energy consumption.”
Rather than continuously heating or cooling a flow of air as it enters the car, Jaguar Land Rover is researching how a car could heat or cool an ‘Air Bubble’ inside the vehicle once, and then maintain the temperature and quality of this air bubble using innovative new HVAC technologies. These include infra-red reflective (IRR) glass, tailor-made for the solar radiation profile of an individual region or country. The glass would reflect the sun’s rays so less energy is required to cool the inside of the car.
To maintain the breathable quality of the warmed or cooled bubble of air, cabin air would be passed through a special filter in the vehicle boot. This filter would remove CO2, moisture and particulates from the cabin air and provide better air quality inside the vehicle than out.
Warm Air Blanket: In the future it may also not even be necessary to heat or cool the volume of air inside the car. Instead the car could directly heat or cool the occupants with warm or cold air flowing through porous surfaces in the seats. Infra-red panels, invisibly embedded inside sun visors, door tops, the glove box door and the sides of the transmission tunnel would surround each occupant and would radiate heat to the body. This ‘Warm Air Blanket’ would cocoon individual occupants in their own microclimate, and warm just the occupant’s skin rather than maintaining the entire cabin at a given temperature.
Because the panels heat up quickly and efficiently, and because the sensation of feeling warm is almost immediate, energy consumption could be dramatically reduced. By combining these techniques, early test results show it is possible to reduce the consumption of an HVAC system by half, from 8-12kW, to 4-6kW.
“Weight saving is crucial to improve fuel consumption and emissions. Jaguar Land Rover’s engineers lead the world in the development of lightweight vehicle bodies to reduce weight to improve handling, fuel efficiency and emissions. Our researchers are moving beyond lightweight body structures and are looking at every component in the car, from how to replace traditional wiring looms with printed electronics, to developing prototype seats much lighter than they are today,” added Dr Epple. “We are also investigating how we could make use of carbon fibre in future vehicles by mixing carbon fibre with innovative new materials like flax, as well as new techniques for manufacturing carbon fibre components in higher volumes than is feasible today.”
Jaguar Land Rover’s research team is investigating whether a vehicle’s copper-based wiring loom and electrical components could be replaced with innovative wafer-thin printed electronic circuits, currently used in curved televisions. The technology could be deployed as a lightweight and space-saving alternative to traditional wiring for features including instruments, switches, sensing, lighting, heating and displays.
Using a forming process called thermoplastic composite stamping, Jaguar Land Rover research engineers have succeeded in developing a new type of lightweight polymer seat structure that weighs 30 per cent less than an equivalent steel-based seat structure. The PLACES seat technology makes the structural components work as part of the comfort system and enables consolidation of parts, reducing weight. Seat cushions and fabric covering are also optimised for weight without impinging on comfort. This enables less foam depth, which offers a slimmer seat profile. This could also aid packaging and liberate more space within the vehicle.
The Carbio project is looking at how we could make carbon fibre more environmentally friendly and cost effective, while improving its noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) properties.
CARBIO combines layers of carbon fibre and flax with an environmentally-friendly cashew nut oil resin. Flax is a natural and sustainable plant material and was chosen because of its inherent sound dampening properties. CARBIO brings the strength and lightweight benefit of carbon fibre together with the sustainability and lower cost of flax. While the manufacturing cost of CARBIO is similar to that of traditional carbon fibre, the material cost of mixing carbon fibre and flax is one-third cheaper.
Components made from CARBIO are 28 per cent lighter than aluminium and 55 per cent lighter than steel and because of the improved NVH properties provided by the flax, a CARBIO component requires less additional sound deadening material around it than traditional carbon fibre, aluminium or steel, potentially saving even more weight.