Έξι γενιές BMW Σειρά 3 δεν είναι και λίγες, με την τελευταία γενιά να παρουσιάζεται τον περασμένο Οκτώβριο. Η BMW κατά την παρουσίαση της, είχε ανακοινώσει ότι το αυτοκίνητο θα είναι διαθέσιμο με 4 κινητήρες (2 βενζίνης και 2 πετρελαίου), και πλέον ανακοίνωσε ότι προστίθενται ακόμη 3 κινητήρες στην γκάμα της. Πρόκειται για έναν βενζινοκινητήρα στην έκδοση 320i και 2 πετρελαιοκινητήρες στις εκδόσεις 316d και 318d.
H 320i φορά τον ίδιο 2.0-λιτρο τετρακύλινδρο κινητήρα με αυτόν της έκδοσης 328i αποδίδοντας όμως, 184 άλογα με 270 Nm ροπής (240 άλογα και 350 Nm η 328i). Συνδυάζεται με ένα 6-τάχυτο μηχανικό κιβώτιο στον στάνταρ εξοπλισμό με τα 0-100 χλμ/ώρα να τα κάνει σε 7.3 δευτ με μέση κατανάλωση 5.9 λίτρα/100 χλμ.
Η έκδοση 316d φορά έναν 2.0-λιτρο τετρακύλινδρο κινητήρα πετρελαίου απόδοσης 116 ίππων με 260 Nm ροπής. Τα 0-100 χλμ/ώρα τα κάνει σε 10.9 δευτ. με τελική ταχύτητα 202 χλμ/ώρα. Έχει μέση κατανάλωση 4.4 λίτρα/100 χλμ με εκπομπές CO2 115 γρ/χλμ. Η έκδοση 318d φορά τον ίδιο κινητήρα με την 316d αλλά αποδίδει 143 άλογα με 320 Nm ροπής. Τα 0-100 χλμ/ώρα τα κάνει σε 9.1 δευτ. με τελική ταχύτητα 210 χλμ/ώρα. Έχει μέση κατανάλωση 4.5 λίτρα/100 χλμ με εκπομπές CO2 117 γρ/χλμ.
The “face“ of the BMW 3 Series through changing times: dynamic, innovative and always unmistakably BMW. Each new BMW 3 Series is a harmonious combination of BMW tradition and modernity, of classic and innovative elements that constantly interpret the desired family resemblance in a most exciting way.
Munich. During the course of more than three and a half decades, the face of the BMW 3 Series has constantly evolved. Designers have always managed to incorporate dynamics, innovation and aesthetics into a harmonious, modern and future-oriented overall concept, whilst at the same time preserving traditional values. As a result, each BMW 3 Series has retained its unmistakable brand identity and can be identified as a BMW at very first glance. However, the roots of the BMW Series reach back as far as the 1960s….
As a manufacturer of sporty, elegant sedans, BMW had at that time already developed a characteristic profile. With a notchback body design, front-mounted engines and rear-wheel drive, a basic principle was established back then (BMW 1500/2000) that still prevails to this very day. With the arrival of the BMW 1600 in 1966, the 2-door 02 Series, which produced such famous models as the 1600ti or the 2002tii, was launched on to the automotive market and eventually replaced by the BMW 3 Series.
The presentation of the first BMW 3 Series in July 1975 marked the beginning of one of the most remarkable success stories in BMW model history. Although the 2-door sedan bore a strong resemblance to the BMW 5 Series introduced in 1972, the market witnessed the launch of an entirely new vehicle with compact dimensions and a sporting character. The predominant design feature of the front end was also the brand’s characteristic symbol, which was clearly identifiable even from a distance – the BMW kidney grille.
1975–1983. The design of the first BMW 3 Series is characterised by large windows, a distinctive wedge shape and, of course, BMW’s brand-typical face, the front end being dominated by the kidney grille vividly protruding from the radiator cover to continue up slightly scoop-shaped along the bonnet to the windscreen. With short overhangs and a track width of 1,364 millimetres at the front, the new sports sedan boasts a rather low-slung appearance. Vertically mounted indicators flank the large round headlights on each side. On the occasion of its presentation, BMW gives the new model best chances of success: “Timeless and without superficial gallery play, the design of BMW 3 Series will also become a trendsetter for the next decade.”
1982–1993. In 1982, the second generation of the BMW 3 Series presents itself as a worthy successor. As a result of a sensitively enhanced design and optimised aerodynamics, the new model has gained significantly in presence. The approx. 35 mm increase in track width also contributes towards the sedan’s distinctively powerful look. Finally, on the whole, the body appears smoother and rounder, the sleek front end being the result of extensive wind tunnel tests, which is not least underscored by a drag coefficient of 0.37. The now low-slung front end boasting the flat BMW kidney grille elongates the entire front end of the vehicle, particularly as the double headlights now featured on all 3 Series models are located far on the outside. The smooth transition into all adjoining body surfaces not only determines the characteristic shape, but also ensures a good air flow around the vehicle. The low-set bonnet with its wide scoop rising gently from the front enhances aerodynamics, its surface not being interrupted by air intake openings.
1990–1997. In 1990, the time had apparently come to replace the soberly designed BMW 3 Series with an exceedingly elegant successor model. It is an entirely newly conceived sports sedan, the dimensions of which have increased all round, both surprising and pleasing the public to an equal extent. Besides the slim silhouette, the smooth front end of the new model is immediately evident, as the double headlights are now conjointly mounted behind a glass cover. In addition to dynamic lines and a distinctive wedge shape, a significantly lower bonnet and a raised rear end, technical refinements such as windows installed flush with the car body and targeted diffuser cooling air circulation inside the engine compartment also contribute towards the outstanding drag coefficient of 0.29 (316i). This BMW has therefore virtually nothing in common with its predecessor, but the family resemblance still remains recognisable. Thanks to typical styling elements such as the kidney grille and double headlights, it is still obviously a BMW, even though the dominating design element and symbol of the brand was now flatter and wider.
1998–2005. When the fourth generation of the BMW 3 Series is launched in May 1998, the compact sports sedan is some 40 mm wider and even the track width has increased by 60 mm compared with its predecessor. At that time, BMW designers describe the styling of the front end as follows: “On the whole and in essential details, the front end, the typical BMW face, has been reinterpreted, but it is still that unmistakable 3 Series face.” The double kidney grille is integrated into the bonnet and, together with the dual round headlights located behind clear glass covers, again shapes the powerful character of the new BMW 3 Series’ face. Compared with the front ends of the BMW 5 and 7 Series, the lower headlight surrounds form a distinctive separation: Here, the curvatures of the reflectors located in the exterior bodywork are finely outlined by a slight indication of curvatures, resulting in a clearly visible interruption of the horizontal line above the bumper.
2005–2011. With the launch of the fifth generation in the year 2005, BMW brings to the market a BMW 3 Series that is strong in character and exudes significantly more presence and power than its predecessor. Only a year after the market launch, the new styling strategy and the progressive design vocabulary gain the highest level of recognition, resulting in the BMW 3 Series being presented with the “World Car of the Year” award in New York. Members of the creative BMW design team are already convinced of the value of their work beforehand: “Within the series, the design has consistently developed in both small and larger steps. The new 3 Series represents a particularly high level of advancement in the vehicle’s design history.” Although the car makes only a proportionally moderate leap compared to the predecessor model, it does stand out from it significantly and noticeably. With the double kidney grille and dual headlights curved at the top, it exhibits the typical front end of a modern BMW – a focused facial expression.
From 2011. The sixth generation of the BMW 3 Series expresses essential qualities of the sedan such as agility, sportiness and dynamics in an entirely new way. Newly interpreted classic design features find a new lease on life and are reminiscent of the models of the 1960s. The large, almost seamlessly integrated radiator cowling with embedded headlights and kidney grille also characterised the distinctive face of the first BMW 3 Series in 1975. On the sports sedan of the year 2011, the modern dual headlights with LED eyebrows extend as far as the kidney grille frame, also forming a continuous optical unit spanning an arch to the historical predecessors in a modern way. The athletically arched bonnet additionally accentuates the front end, emphasising the car’s presence and sporting appeal. Instead of a central air intake, the new BMW 3 Series has two larger air intakes located to the outside below the headlights. Additional vertical air vents are located on the outer edge of the air intakes, creating the so-called “air curtain”. By means of enhanced aerodynamic airflow in the vicinity of the front wheels it facilitates a reduction in fuel consumption at high speeds and contributes towards an outstanding drag coefficient of 0.26.
Although more than 35 years lie between the first generation of 1975 and the current BMW 3 Series, both front ends attest to an unmistakable brand identity and, in spite of the great difference in age, are both immediately recognisable as members of the same family. Then as now, the design bestows the BMW sedan with its styling and personality, expressing contemporary and trendsetting dynamics, innovation and aesthetics. Hence, each generation of the compact sports sedan stands for BMW tradition and modernity alike. And each model combines classic and innovative elements that interpret this theme in their very own way.
Extended engine range for the new BMW 3 Series Sedan: new 4-cylinder petrol engine in the BMW 320i and two revised turbodiesels in the BMW 318d and 316d.
BMW is expanding its range of engines for the new BMW 3 Series Sedan with the addition of three power units which are all characterised by a high level of output and outstanding efficiency.
BMW 320i with BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology.
After the BMW 328i, the second representative of a new generation of 2.0-litre 4-cylinder petrol engines sees its debut in the new BMW 320i. In the new model, the TwinPower Turbo delivers an output of 135 kW/184 bhp at 5,000 rpm, reaching a maximum torque of 270 Nm from just 1,250 rpm.
This puts it 10 kW above the maximum output of its predecessor, while in terms of pulling power it even achieves an increase of 60 Nm. On this basis, the new BMW 320i with 6-speed manual transmission accelerates in just 7.3 seconds from zero to 100 km/h, 0.9 seconds faster than its predecessor model. In spite of these increased driving performance figures, the sedan is considerably more economical in terms of fuel consumption. With an average rate of just 5.9 litres per 100 kilometres on the EU test cycle, the BMW 320i undercuts the fuel consumption level of its predecessor by 0.5 l/100 km, in other words around seven per cent. The technological advance is even more striking in conjunction with the 8-speed automatic transmission: here the reduction as compared to the predecessor model with 6-speed automatic transmission is as much as 12 per cent.
The new 4-cylinder spark ignition engines are key elements of the BMW EfficientDynamics development strategy, geared towards increasing driving pleasure while cutting back fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. The engine of the BMW 320i is based on a friction-optimised basic 1,997 cc engine whose output differentiation is primarily derived from injection and turbocharging technology. The main components of the globally unique BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology include High Precision Injection, supercharging based on the TwinScroll principle, the variable valve control system VALVETRONIC and the variable camshaft control system double VANOS. Thus equipped and fitted with an all-aluminium crankcase, these engines move into an output range which would otherwise only be achieved by conventional naturally aspirated engines with a higher number of cylinders and larger capacity.
BMW 318d and 316d: high-torque, smooth-running and efficient.
The diesel power units in the new 3 Series Sedan also draw on state-of-the-art BMW TwinPower Turbo Technology. Latest generation common rail direct injection, turbocharging and all-aluminium construction ensure a high level of pulling power, running smoothness and unsurpassed efficiency in these modern 4-cylinder engines. A centrifugal pendulum in the dual-mass flywheel compensates for irregular revolutions and supports comfortable driving within low engine speed ranges. All diesel engines can be combined with the new 8-speed automatic transmission if required.
The two turbodiesels are familiar from the predecessor model and offer the respective driving performance figures. In the new BMW 318d, the output of the diesel engine is 105 kW/143 bhp at 4,000 rpm, with a maximum torque of 320 Nm is available between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm. Considering its acceleration rate of zero to 100 km/h in 9.1 seconds (automatic transmission: 9.3 seconds) and a top speed of 210 km/h, the new BMW 318d is highly fuel-efficient, with an average consumption of 4.5 litres per 100 kilometres in both transmission versions. The level of CO2 emissions is 117 grams per kilometre. In spite of enhanced driving performance figures, this means a saving of two and 24 per cent respectively as compared to the predecessor model.
The entry-level diesel engine of the BMW 316d is particularly geared towards economy. At an engine speed of 4,000 rpm it delivers a peak output of 85 kW/116 bhp, developing a maximum torque of 260 Nm between 1,750 and 2,500 rpm. This enables the sedan to accelerate from zero to 100 km/h in 10.9 seconds (automatic transmission: 11.3 sec), achieving a top speed of 202 km/h. The average fuel consumption is 4.4 litres per 100 kilometres (automatic transmission: 4.5 l/100 km), with CO2 emissions at a level of 115 and 116 grams per kilometre respectively.
The progressive BMW BluePerformance Technology is available as an option for the BMW 320d EfficientDynamics Edition as of spring 2012, combining the diesel particulate filter and oxidation catalytic converter with an NOx catalyst storage. The system brings about a significant reduction in nitrogen oxides, remaining comfortably within the threshold stipulated by the EU6 emission standard.